The company has recently developed a plasma injector ten times more powerful than its predecessor (now the world's most powerful), which has begun operation at General Fusion’s facilities in Burnaby. This new PI3 injector is expected to contribute significantly to the commercialization of the company’s technology. General Fusion’s commercialization program has moved forward rapidly, building on plasma performance milestones achieved in its smaller plasma injectors. The company has developed and tested 18 increasingly sophisticated plasma injectors over the past decade, culminating in the PI3.
In March 2019, Chinese researchers predicted that the nation’s next generation HL-2M tokamak would be built before the end of 2019. In November 2019, Duan Xuru, one of the scientists working on the project, provided an update, saying that construction was going smoothly and that the device should be operational in 2020.
Fusion physicist James Harrison, who isn’t involved with the project, stated the following to Newsweek: “HL-2M will provide researchers with valuable data on the compatibility of high-performance fusion plasmas with approaches to more effectively handle the heat and particles exhausted from the core of the device. This is one of the biggest issues facing the development of a commercial fusion reactor, and the results from HL-2M, as part of the international fusion research community, will influence the design of these reactors.”
Nuclear Engineering International reported the following on November 29, 2019:
China has completed the construction of the HL-2M tokamak fusion reactor at a research centre in Chengdu, the capital city of southwest China’s Sichuan province.
The tokamak will become operational in 2020, Xinhua reported on 27 November 2019, noting that installation work has gone smoothly since the delivery of the coil system in June. The new apparatus, with a more advanced structure and control mode, is expected to generate plasmas hotter than 200 million degrees Celsius, said Duan Xuru, head of the Southwestern Institute of Physics (SWIP) under the China National Nuclear Corporation (CNNC). China has already spent close to a billion dollars on the project. The facility will provide key technical support for China's participation in the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (Iter) project, as well as the self-designing and building of fusion reactors, he noted. China is a member of ITER, under construction in France, along with the European Union, the US, India, Japan, South Korea and Russia.
HL-2M, built by the Southwestern Institute of Physics, is an upgrade to China’s previous model, the HL-2A – one of three major domestic tokamaks now in operation in China. The other two are the EAST machine at the Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP) in Hefei and J-TEXT at the Huazhong University of Science and Technology (HUST).
China started nuclear fusion research in the 1960s and included construction of the HL-1 (upgrade HL-1M) in SWIP and other small tokamaks such as the KT-5 in the University of Sciences and Technology of China (USTC) and the upgraded CT-6B at the Institute of Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (IP CAS) in Beijing as well as the first domestic superconducting tokamak, the medium sized tokamak HT-7 at ASIPP.
These are all intended to pave the way for the China Fusion Engineering Test Reactor (CFETR), the preliminary conceptual design of which was finished in 2015, with the engineering design started in 2017. CFETR is intended for steady-state operation, as well as tritium self-sustainment. In phase one it should have 200MW fusion power and in phase two it should have power of 1GW. It aims to bridge the fusion experiments between ITER and DEMO --- the proposed nuclear fusion power station expected to build upon Iter. DEMO is seen as the next step towards a "first of a kind" commercial station. CFETR aims to provide DEMO validation.
ENN Energy announced a collaboration with Princeton University in 2019, with the intention of building two further fusion reactors in China (see entry #33).
Mr. Dinan is also CEO of PULSAR Fusion, a London-based company that was founded in 2015. PULSAR Fusion states that it develops and manufactures components for use in Nuclear Fusion reactors and associated applications. The companies focuses include the control of plasma flow and plasma facing materials, specialist robotics, divertors, high temperature superconductors (HTS) & plasma control technologies.
PULSAR Fusion's objective is to grow its existing portfolio of advanced, patent pending components and to acquire additional strategic fusion energy assets., investing in technologies that are believed to offer future growth prospects as the nuclear fusion sector matures.
Additionally, Mr. Dinan is the author of “The Fusion Age: Modern Nuclear Fusion Reactors” and he has raised several million pounds in private investment.
Mr. Dinan states on his Linked-In page that "Nuclear Fusion’s greatest promise lies beyond power stations; AFS is pursuing D-He3 fusion for its off-grid possibilities such as defence, transport and space exploration."
D-He3 fusion is an aneutronic reaction which requires the use of hypothetically achievable higher temperatures and pressures so as to minimize the release of potentially harmful neutron radiation, while directly generating an electrical charge, which can be deployed more directly in a range of applied technologies.
24. HB11 Energy. As we have discussed, most current fusion energy designs are built around deuterium-tritium (DT) fusion, a "first generation" approach that releases high levels of problematic neutron radiation as the bearer of the energy of the reaction. HB11 is focused on a new methodology to develop an aneutronic boronic fusion reactor. The primary obstacle to boronic fusion is that it requires almost ten times the temperatures that are required to produce a deuterium-tritium reaction.
A University of New South Wales (Australian) spinoff, HB11 Energy makes the following statement: Two recent scientific breakthroughs have opened a new way to fusion reactions, predicted by our founder in the 1960’s. It involves the reaction between hydrogen H and the boron isotope 11 (HB11) as uncompressed solid state fuel within an extremely high trapping magnetic field. Both of these conditions have been demonstrated by experiments and following predictions from computations.
Our intellectual property exploits the combination of these two techniques for generating power. A scientific paper accepted for publication describes the road map that has deemed the approach by one of the founders with his team as a viable method based on the experimentally confirmed reaction gains one billion times higher than classical values, placing it far ahead of any DT fusion approaches.
Other advantages: Unlike Deuterium Tritium fusion and fission techniques, the HB11 reaction is sufficiently clean with respect to production of any harmful by-products or radiation (protons rather than neutrons are released). It also has the potential to create electricity directly without the need for a heat exchanger and steam turbine to generate electricity as required for coal or fission nuclear power stations. This will allow power stations to be built with a relatively small capital investment and footprint based on presently achieved extreme laser technology.
Further, the company states: We expect to be able to provide energy for about ¼ of the price of coal fired power, without any carbon emissions or radioactive by-products, which will be disruptive to the power industry. With the small size and footprint of a HB11 power station, the addressable market is expected to reach further than the power grid to applications such as ships, submarines, large factories or to remote locations such as isolated towns and mine sites.
Science Alert published a discussion of the company's plan on December 29, 2017, stating: Their hydrogen-boron reactor works by triggering an "avalanche" fusion reaction from a laser beam packing a quadrillion watts of power in just a trillionth of a second. "The fuels and waste are safe, the reactor won't need a heat exchanger and steam turbine generator, and the lasers we need can be bought off the shelf," says Warren McKenzie, managing director of HB11, which owns the patents to the new technology.
25. Fuse Energy in Montreal does not have a public website, but has established a Facebook page. The company is headed by Max Yaney, who previous founded Titan Aerospace. Fuse intends to "take in ideas and then evaluate them." The company's stated missions are: (1) To bring fusion energy to life and create universal abundance; and (2) To solve our species' energy demands and to provide endless clean energy. A highly credentialed advisory panel has been assembled, including former Google staffers, among others.
To be blunt, Fuse Energy's goals, methods and design are presently quite vague. The company seems to have a "tech startup" feel. Time will tell if something more specific develops.
26. First Light Fusion was started in 2011 as a spin-out from Oxford University in the UK. The company is reported to have raised tens of millions of pounds from Parkwalk Associates. The goal of the company is to re-work "everything about inertial confinement fusion compression." The company are examining compression with a single laser, trying different target designs (encasing fuel in gels, glass, different target shapes and sizes, etc.). Dr. Stephen Chu (a Nobel Prize winner and former US Energy Secretary) sits on the company's science advisory board.
The company states the following:
First Light Fusion Ltd is a lean, focused and agile corporation researching energy generation by inertial confinement fusion. The company was spun out from the University of Oxford in June 2011 and is based near Oxford. First Light continues to work closely with the academic community, both in the UK and internationally. The company is well-funded by both institutional investors and private individuals.
Inertial confinement fusion for energy generation is a well-established research field and is being pursued in many laboratories worldwide, perhaps most notably in the US at the National Ignition Facility.
First Light is exploring a number of alternative research directions that harness the same fundamental physics, with the prime focus being power generation. First Light’s work to date has included theoretical analysis, detailed numerical simulations and experimental validation. This has allowed description of accessible parameters, and has led to a clear vision of the pathway to fusion.
First Light has also considered the costs and engineering practicalities of a reactor implementing its technology and can articulate a number of advantages over other approaches. We are pursuing pulsed power driver technology, which we believe will reduce costs by an order of magnitude.
Additionally, the energy focusing processes being pursued form the foundations of a new technological platform where secondary opportunities exist in a number of alternative applications, for example material processing and chemical manufacture.
An exhaustive project to test the viability of the company's proprietary fusion island concept by the UK Atomic Energy Authority (UKAEA) has recently concluded (2019) that the project is viable – giving First Light Fusion the green light to proceed with real-world tests of its technology.
The company's fusion island sub-system is a unique design aspect, responsible not only for converting the fusion energy into heat but also for managing the fuel supply in a fusion power plant.
It is novel because rather than encouraging a symmetrical implosion – an approach taking with traditional fusion reactor designs that is plagued with inherent instabilities in the reaction process – it harnesses the instabilities of the process to encourage an asymmetrical approach.
The design has the potential to achieve the net power gain because it tackles three of the biggest issues that have plagued fusion reactor design – with the recent UKAEA study verifying that the fusion island successfully tackles these.
(1) The first is neutron damage, where over time radiation from the high-energy streams of neutrons that make up much of fusion energy cause damage to the structure of reactors. Neutron damage can be a problem in fission too, but it is far worse in fusion because the larger amounts of energy generated mean higher neutron energies.
The way the fusion island handles these streams of neutrons means, according to First Light Fusion, that there is less damage to the structure – making the long-term running of the reactor in question more viable.
(2) The second is heat flux, the density of energy flowing through the reactor. If there is too much energy concentrated in one place within a reactor for too long, this too can cause severe problems with its operation – something that the fusion island is designed to handle.
(3) The third is tritium production. Tritium is one of the key fuels in most fusion reactor designs, as it is combined with deuterium to increase the rate at which the fusion reaction proceeds. With a half-life of only 12.3 years, tritium is exceptionally rare in nature.
As a result, it can most efficiently be produced in the reactor itself through the exposure of a lithium-based coating on the reactor’s inner walls to neutron radiation. When lithium is exposed to neutron radiation, tritium is a naturally-occurring reaction product.
Not only does the fusion island enable this reaction, the UKAEA study also confirming that its design allows the material to be pure lithium – removing the need for a lithium material to be custom-created for the design.
“It is hard to overstate the importance of being able to make the power plant from existing materials, like natural lithium,” explains Nick Hawker, founder and CEO of First Light Fusion. “This has the potential to bring fusion power to market up to a decade sooner.”
27. AGNI Fusion is obviously in the early stages, having grown out of an award-winning science fair project in 2011, which was recognized by President Obama at the time.
The AGNI group are attempting a beam approach to fusion, outlined as follows:
AGNI is expected to achieve:
The product of deuterium and tritium fusion is helium-4 and a neutron. Helium-4 is a rare resource that does not stick around the Earth once in the atmosphere, and is needed for scientific equipment like MRIs. The neutron is the main carrier of energy, holding 14.1 MeV, that will be used to power a steam turbine, generating electricity.
28. Horne Technologies. Based in Denver, this company's stated goal is to develop the world's first continuous-operation enabled, superconducting, high-beta fusion research device, with a design comparable to the Lockheed Martin approach, but ideally "simpler."
The company states:
Fusion itself is fairly easy, even young people at the high school level have built simple fusion reactors called fusors for science projects. Why then do we not have all our electricity produced from fusion? The problem is optimization. Although fusion is easy, it is not easy to get energy from it. In fact no one has ever come close to break-even, the point at which you produce more energy than you use.
Horne Technologies is here to change that. Our prototype is complete.
Fortunately, and unfortunately, while it has been easy to burn fossil fuels on Earth for energy, this is not feasible in space. Without such an abundant energy source, expanding into the solar system will be very difficult. The space race of the 1960s created many of the technologies we use every day. Using this same methodology offers a great path to fusion.
A hybrid approach and technology is being implemented to develop fusion technology for terrestrial and space energy applications. Fusion is the disruptive energy of the future.
Four core technologies are combined with state of the art high-temperature superconductors to improve the performance of the fusion device:
I) Inertial Electrostatic Heating (IEC)
II) Superconducting, Magnetically-Shielded Grid
III) High-Beta Capable Fusion Core
IV) Ion-ion and ion-neutral thermalization mitigation optimization
For 10 years Horne Technologies has been working on these fusion technologies to create optimized solutions for a viable fusion reactor for use in space and on Earth.
29. US Navy. Popular Mechanics reported on October 10, 2019, that a patent filed by the U.S. Navy last month claims to have developed a compact Nuclear Fusion Reactor. Popular Mechanics notes that nuclear fusion has been touted as the ultimate energy source, generating enormous amounts of power with little to no harmful byproducts. However, no one has yet been able to mass produce or control large quantities of fusion energy, so designs for the reactor seemingly stretch the limits of science.
The magazine reports:
The U.S. Navy has filed a patent for a compact fusion reactor, according to exclusive reporting by The War Zone.
The patent for the device was reportedly filed on March 22, 2019, and published late last month. This technology, by all accounts, is "a long shot." But, if successful, it would completely revolutionize how we power our world.
In order to create fusion energy on Earth, scientists and engineers must build instruments that can contain gases that will reach temperatures of hundreds of millions of degrees in order to compel atomic nuclei to collide at high speeds to create a superheated plasma.
One kilogram of fusion fuel produces the same amount of energy as 10 million kilograms of fossil fuels. It’s the perfect energy source; it doesn’t emit greenhouse gases or leave behind harmful byproducts such as nuclear waste—unlike nuclear fission. In fact, its sole byproduct is helium: an inert, extremely useful gas.
Current reactors are approximately the size of a building; a relatively portable compact fusion reactor, one designed to power relatively small vehicles, would be a game-changer. The Chinese government, Lockheed Martin, and several other private companies have made inroads in shrinking the technology, and the Navy is investigating a unique approach. This device, according the The War Zone, could potentially fit on a boat or an aircraft.
The success of the device, developed by researcher Salvatore Cezar Pais of the Aircraft Division of the Naval Air Warfare Center, relies on a dynamic fusor component. According to the patent, Pais’ plasma chamber contains several pairs of dynamic fusors, which rapidly spin and vibrate within the chamber in order to create a “concentrated magnetic energy flux” that can compress the gases.
Coated with an electrical charge, the cone-shaped fusors pump fuel gases such as Deuterium or Deuterium-Xenon into the chamber, which are then subjected to intense heat and pressure to create the nuclei-fusing reaction. In contrast, current technology at reactors around the world use superconductors to create a magnetic field.
The War Zone reports that the device could potentially produce more than a terawatt of energy while only taking in power in the kilowatt to megawatt range.
Dr. Matthew Moynihan is currently conducting a review of the US Navy proposal, aspects of which are unconventional and controversial (personal communication).
30. Convergent Scientific, Inc. (CSI) CSI has developed a variation of the Convergent Ion Focus (CIF) approach to fusion energy generation, which is capable of producing extremely energetic non-neutral plasmas at much lower relative input energy requirements. The design is based on 50 years of research, specifically the Inertial Electrostatic Confinement (IEC) design. The small company has built and tested one prototype, and intends to retrofit coal-fired power plants with convergent ion focus technology.
The principals of the company are:
Robert Clarke Blair
Chief Operating Officer
Clarke has spent 25 years helping companies implement earned value and project management systems, with the last 14 years devoted to implementing Oracle/Primavera products, with emphasis on process improvement and enterprise-wide portfolio/resource management. He provides leadership and training to help organizations make the changes required (especially in human behavior) to implement enterprise-level project management software.
Chief Technology Officer
Devlin holds Bachelors of Science degrees in Physics and Mathematics, Western Washington University, 2008, with additional concentrations in Electrical Engineering, Astronomy, and Geology. He has been involved in experimental physics, software development and computer aided design for the last eight years. He has been working with small scale electrostatic (IEC) fusion reactors since fabricating his first prototype in 2001.
Chief Technical Advisor
Joel holds a Bachelor of Physics from MIT (1965) and a PhD in Nuclear Physics from UCLA (1969). He was a research scientist at Canada's "TRIUMF" in Vancouver, BC, from 1973 to 2004. He has published over 100 articles in refereed journals such as Physical Review, Nuclear Physics, and Nuclear Instruments and Methods. He is the holder of five U.S. patents, and the author of a currently pending patent, “Modular Apparatus for Confining a Plasma.”
31. HyperV Technologies Corp. is a privately held fusion energy research and development company founded by Dr. F. Douglas Witherspoon in 2004 and located in Chantilly, Virginia, U.S.A. The company combined with HyperJet Fusion Corporation in 2017 (see below), keeping the original address. The company specializes in the development of unique ultra-high performance plasma guns for use in fusion energy, plasma physics research, and industrial applications. The name HyperV comes from the word “HyperVelocity” and references the extremely high velocities achieved by plasma when formed and fired from the company's plasma guns.
Since its establishment in 2004, HyperV Technologies Corp. has received funding through a series of research grants from the U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES). HyperV was awarded these grants and numerous SBIR’s, following a highly competitive proposal and rigorous scientific peer review process.
In continuing the advancement of its fusion energy research and development effort, HyperV states that it has teamed with the "legendary" Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) of New Mexico. This HyperV/LANL partnership is focusing on the design, development and operation of the PLX-α experiment located at LANL in New Mexico and funded by the DOE Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy.
In addition to its plasma gun development effort, HyperV is developing extremely fast fiber-coupled imaging systems for diagnostics applications in plasma physics, aerospace applications and other industrial processes.
Interestingly, HyperV Technologies has been researching Plasma Jet Magneto-Inertial Fusion (PJMIF), with the intention that its plasma electric thruster technology will be ideal for propelling spacecraft within the solar system. For example, the company's technologies enable the use of solar panels for electric power out to at least the asteroid belt beyond Mars without requiring a "large unwieldy array" of solar panels. For beyond the asteroid belt, in the darker outer solar system, a compact fission reactor capable of providing electrical power for years is identified the most practical energy source.
The company states:
We have identified a unique new approach to using a non-gaseous propellant, which maintains the same high Isp and thrust of argon or xenon gas propellants in our thruster. This new propellant approach provides the E3P thruster technology with the following advantages:
1) The non-gaseous propellant is completely inert and non-toxic, and requires no high-pressure propellant tanks which can explode, or valves which can fail. Given that the propellant is inert and non-toxic, it is an ideal candidate technology for safe use with, and storage aboard, manned platforms and on cubesats.
2) This thruster technology could enable interplanetary missions on cubesat spacecraft as small as 6U (briefcase size spacecraft) and with similarly low cost.
3) It is scalable up to large spacecraft in the kilowatt power range.
4) It can be throttled for fine maneuvering of the spacecraft.
5) Both the thruster technology and propellant are mechanically robust.
6) It has high thrust per unit area, taking up less space on the rear of the spacecraft.
On October 17, 2017, HyperV Technologies announced that it has begun the process of merging with HyperJet Fusion Corporation. Dr. Y. C. Francis Thio was appointed as the President and CEO of HyperJet Fusion Corporation, but left the position in 2019 to join a better-funded fusion power initiative with ENN Energy in China (see #33 below). Dr. Thio is also the inventor of both Plasma Jet Driven Magneto Inertial Fusion (PJMIF) and the contour-gap coaxial plasma gun, a leading candidate for use as the PJMIF reactor plasma driver. The fusion energy approach that HyperJet Fusion is developing has previously been known as Plasma-Jet driven Magneto-Inertial Fusion (PJMIF). Since hypersonic jets play a key role in the fusion scheme, the fusion approach is being renamed hyperjet fusion, hence the name of the company.
HyperJet Fusion Corporation intends to continue to build on the development efforts of the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, Los Alamos National Laboratory, and HyperV Technologies Corp. To date, hyperjet fusion research and development has been funded by NASA, DOE Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (FES), and the Advanced Research Projects Agency-Energy (ARPA-E). This investment represents nearly $28 million from the U.S. government.
Strong Atomics, a private fusion energy investment fund, has also providing seed investment funding to HyperJet Fusion Corporation. Additionally, the founder and President of HyperV Technologies Corp. Dr. F. Douglas Witherspoon, is now the Vice President and COO of HyperJet Fusion. The merger includes the transfer of all personnel, facilities, equipment and intellectual property developed by HyperV Technologies Corp to HyperJet Fusion.
Dr. Thio, now working in China, stated the following on behalf of HyperJet Fusion in 2017: “Our company has inherited tremendous experience and valuable scientific data from the development of HyperV’s proprietary plasma gun technology. In addition to fusion energy, our plasma guns also have promising applications in the fields of micron and submicron metallic powder production, thermal spray, space propulsion (including fusion propulsion), and high energy density plasma research. The plasma guns can be used to refuel the plasma in experimental tokamak fusion reactors, as well as mitigate the destructive effects of plasma disruption events. They can also be used for driving rotations in tokamak and other plasma devices. As part of the effort to better understand the complex science of plasmas, an array of unique high performance diagnostic and data capture tools have been developed. This exclusive line of diagnostic and data capture tools is now also available for sale through HyperJet Fusion Corporation.”
32. Compact Fusion Systems in Santa Fe, New Mexico, so far has no online presence. The company's design employs liquid metal surrounding a plasma core, with some parallels to General Fusion's strategy. CFS, in turn, is a spinout venture from Woodruff Scientific, Inc., of Santa Fe, New Mexico and Seattle, Washington. The aim of CFS is to "develop a prototype (fusion) power core."
CFS has "a solid technical team of former researchers from Kirkland Air Force base, NRL and two private firms." The company recently raised funds via Strong Atomics, a new venture capital firm, focused solely on fusion power initiatives.
Strong Atomics, in turn, intends to invest in a portfolio of varied fusion projects, selected based on their potential to create net-positive energy and to lead to plausible reactors. In addition to CFS, Strong Atomics has also invested in FuZE (Zap Energy), MIFTI, and HyperJet Fusion, all of which have been discussed above.
The world requires clean energy sources to sustain our ever-increasing energy demands. As climate change deepens due to increasing fossil fuel use, fusion has been regarded as “The Ultimate Energy Source”, capable of generating nearly inexhaustible carbon-free energy.
The ENN Fusion Engine Challenge (FUGINE) is a global program that seeks to attract dedicated scholars and innovators who are devoted to advancing fusion research and development. It is part of the ENN Carbon-free Energy Initiative (ENN-CFEI) launched by ENN Energy Research Institute, with an aim to leverage open innovation to solve the world's energy challenges and embrace a carbon-free future.
Both individuals and organizations are encouraged to participate and submit proposals. These will be reviewed by an international panel of scientists, engineers and academics according to technical merits. Substantive prizes as high as $150,000.00 USD will be awarded to the winners. All the prize winners will have the opportunity to become ENN’s technology partners, to work jointly toward the realization of the winning proposals.
Join the FUGINE Challenge Now!
Dr Matthew Moynihan writes critically on the topic, as follows:
From May 26th to 28th China hosted an alternatives fusion approach conference in the city of Xi'an. The conference focused on non-tokamak and featured talks on magneto-inertial fusion (MIF), heavy ion-beam ICF, plasma liner fusion and magnetic mirrors. America has no magnetic mirror machines anywhere our country; despite calls from US experts like Dr. Ken Fowler, Dr. Ralph Moir and Dr. Simeon to do so. Guests were given a tour of the new fusion effort taking flight the ENN energy holdings.
ENN is a billion-dollar energy company in central china that has started a private fusion research effort. The company is flush with cash. They have sunk ~$10 million over 2 years into duplicating the Princeton Field Reversed Configuration (rotamak) over in China; they have also hired a staff of 30 to drive the effort.
ENN also has plans to build a 1 Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak. To make matters worse, after the conference, a top fusion scientist - Dr. Francis Thio hio – was hired away from his position as CEO of HyperJet fusion. Dr. Thio previously served as a program manager at the DOE. Dr. Thio is an expert in plasma liner fusion – a technology that the US has a healthy lead in - and that China had not previously been pursuing.
So far, there is little published by ENN Energy in English mainstream media about its specific fusion power initiatives, though the company's Center for Compact Fusion Research publishes extensively in scientific journals.
Renaissance Fusion states:
14. Superconductor Technologies, Inc., in Austin Texas has been developing high temperature superconducting wire for 32 years, and only now is the product coming to market. I've followed this company for several years. They have always talked in terms of using superconductors in power generation, but in a general way. Now, very recently, they are seeing fusion power as the primary focus of their technology, and the focus of the company's communications has clearly been aligned with this purpose in mind. It seems to me that many threads are coming together at once, as it has become increasingly evident that fusion is a near-term power technology --- it's not conceived of as a long-term project anymore!